Al Sharqiyah North & South Governorates
Al Sharqiyah area is in the north east front of
Oman over looking the Arabian Sea from the east.
It includes the internal side of Al Hajr Al sharqi
mountains which join it from the north. It also
joins Wahibah Sand frmothe south and Ad Dakhliyah
Governorate from the west. Al Sharqiyah
Al Sharqiyah North
The affiliated wilayats are Ibra, Al Mudhaibi,
Bidiya, Al Kabil, Wadi Bani Khalid and Dima
W’attayeen. The centre of the governorate is the
Wilayat of Ibra.
Al Sharqiyah South Governorate.
wilayats are Sur, Al Kamil W’al Wafi, Jaalan
Bani Bu Hassan, Jaalan Bani Bu Ali and Masirah.
The centre of the governorate is the Wilayat of
Ibra - the regional center - is an agricultural wilayat. It also has some crafts and traditional
industries. As regards Masirah Island which is in
the Arabian Sea, it is distinguished for its
strategic location and for the massive and
different species of turtles which lay and hatch
their eggs in the coasts of the island.
Ibra In the north and west
it neighbors the Wilayat of Al Mudaibi, in the south the Wilayat of Qabil,
and in the east the Wilayat of Dima and Taaiyin.
The most important mosque is the is the Al 'Aqaba Mosque, which was built at the foot of Jabal Al
Naasiri. Its mihrab faces Jerusalem and it is from this mosque that the
Wilayat took its emblem.
It contains about 70 villages. There are a
number of archaeological features, castles, forts, towers and ancient
There is only one castle, Al Dhahir, which is in the Al Yahmadi area which
has recently been restored by the Ministry of National Culture and Heritage.
There are five forts : Al Shubbak, Farifar, Al Daghsha, Al Yahmadi and Bait
Al Qasimi .There are also nine towers: Al Qatabi, Al Naasiri, Al Qala'a, Al
Mansur, Al Nataala, Al Qarin, San'aa, Al Safah and Burj Al Qarun
Springs, falaj and caves make up the tourist attractions in the Wilayat. The
most important springs are: Abu Saalih, Al Diyaan, and Shabihaat, the water
from all of these can be drunk. 'Ain Al Milah is famous because its mineral
water can cure skin diseases. There used to be 64 falaj in the Wilayat, but
now only 34 remain. The most important are : Al Writ, Al Masmum, Al Thaabati,
and Abu Makhirin. The most outstanding cave is the cave of Jarf Rajib. In
addition there are some other tourist attractions noted for their water and
shady trees, places such as: Faj Majaaza in Al Haaimah area, Al Hadima in Al
Yahmadi area and Qasiba in the south of Qaghifa.
Sur town is one of
the regional centers Located some 337 Kms
from the Capital Muscat and the most important of
Ash Sharqiyah cities. It played a historical rule
in trade and navigation in the Indian Ocean. It
was also known for ship buildding, as it was the
most renowned city in the Arabian Peninsula in
ship building in the last century. Besides, marine
activity and ship building, Sur is femous for some
historical touristic places such as caves. It is
also known wood industries. textiles and produces
a number of agricultural crops.
Sur is located in the northern part of the Sharqiya
coast in the Sultanate. It is constrained on the east side between the
Arabian Sea on one side and the Gulf of Oman on the other. From the west it
neighbors the Wilayat of Wadi Bani Khalid and from the north the Wilayat of
Quriyat which is part of the Governorate of Muscat and in the south it
neighbors the two Wilayats of Al Kamil and Al Waafi and Bani Bu Ali & Ja'alan
Bani Bu Hassan. It stretches from Ras Al Had in the east to the mountains of
Bani Jabir in the west and from Tiwi in the north to Al Faleej in the south.
It contains about 112 villages and towns. They describe it as the pearl of
the east coast of the Sultanate. It was the main source for sailors for
Oman's navy, which played an illustrious role in maritime history. It formed
the gateway of the east of Oman and was a historical meeting place for sea
routes. Malik Bin Faham Al Azdi Al 'Umani adopted it as the capital of
his kingdom in 2500 B.C. When Qalahat became an important urban centre, the
Wilayat of Sur flourished. In ancient times it was a Phoenician settlement,
named after a city in south Lebanon. Ras Al Hadd is part of the Wilayat of
Sur, it overlooks the sea and it is a natural harbor for sailing ships. When
storms blow, they can take refuge in the two inlets of Al Hajar and Jarama.
The area is characterized by its tortuous inlets, which I made it a suitable
place to build an air base during the Second World war. It was a refuge where
aero planes took shelter when they needed it. Traces of this airport can
still be seen !
One of the most outstanding fortresses in
the wilayat of Sur is the fort Al Rafsah which was used- long ago- to guard
the main gateway to the Wilayat on the desert road .Now, a strong chain has
been put up to stop people going in, for safety and preservation purpose.
This forts was restored recently by the Ministry of National Heritage and
Culture." Hasan Bilad Sur" is considered one of the most important forts in
the Wilayat, it was previously the Wali's forts, used as a place of
celebration on festivals and special occasions. It has also been restored.
There are also other Forts like Sinaislah Forts, Ras Al Had and Ebn Magrib
The springs, falaj and caves are tourist
attractions in the Wilayat of Sur. There are some small springs in the
mountainous areas, which are used to irrigate
cultivated areas. There are 102 falaj, which the people of the Wilayat use
for various purpose. One of the most important caves, for which the Wilayat
of Sur is famous, is "Majlas Al Jinn" which is located in Wadi Bani Jabir.
It is the size of seven aero planes and was discovered by satellite. In
addition there are the caves of "Maghart Al'ais and "Jarf Mankharaq". "Wadi Shab" is a touristic attraction in Tiwi.
This Wilayat is almost in the middle of the Sharqiya,
north of it is the Wilayat of AI Qabil and in the
east it neighbours the Wilayats of Al Kamil and Al
Wafi and Wadi Bani Khalid.I contains about 15
villages. Story tellers relate that it was
established when the Hajjaris (who are the
majority of the inhabitants) arrived there. That
was in 1008 A.H. They built castles and forts, and
they made a number of falaj, before which the
Wilayat was reliant on wells. This stage "the
descending of the Hajjaris" was considered the
beginning of its prosperity and so they called it
"Badiya" (the beginning) - thus relate the story
One of the most
important sites, in the Wilayat of Badiya is the fort which the Ministry of
National Heritage and Culture restored recently. It is the fort of Al
Mintarib. There is also the fortress of Al Wasil. This is surrounded by four
towers, in addition to three other forts, which are called Al Shaariq, Al
Hawiya and Al Ghabi.
Added to the tourist attractions of the Wilayat are the
falaj, springs and other pleasant places. The most important falaj are Al
Mintarib, Al Shariq, Hatwah, Al Qa'a, Al Jahas, Dibeek, Al Raka, Shaahik, Al
Heeli, Al Hawiya, Al Dhaahir, Al Mutaaw'a and Al Ghabee. The most important
springs, famous in the Dhahir area are: 'Ain Yaya, Habseen, Abu Saheela, Abu
Sareema, Abu Ghafa and 'Ain Al Tamr.
In addition to all
this, nature plays a beautiful role in the Wilayat of Badiya. The
environment differs between sand and mountains, the coast and green oases.
The Wilayat is famous for Arabian horse and camel racing which takes place
at the end of each week. Many enthusiasts from both inside and outside the
Sultanate, watch these races.
Wilayat al Qabil
In the north is the
Wilayat of Ibra, to the south the Wilayat of Badiya, in the north east it
neighbours the Wilayat of Dima and Al Taaiyin, in the south east Wadi Bani
Khalid and in the west the Wilayat of Al Mudaibi. It contains about 21 villages. There are about 69 archaeological
sites, the most important being two forts, one of them in Al Qabil and the
other in Al Mudirab.
There are about 50 falaj, the most important being: Al Mudirab, Al Qabil, Al
Direez and Al Nabaa. It is also famous for a number of villages which are
located between the high, golden sand dunes. The most important of these
villages are Al Sakaa, Al 'Aqida, Al Kharis and Al Jufaa. There are also a
number of springs in the Wilayat. The most important are: 'Ain Marzuk, known
for water, 'Ain Wadi Barka and 'Ain Al Washal. The falaj, springs and
villages located in the middle of the sand dunes are tourist attractions.
Wilayat al mudaibi
In the north it neighbours the Wilayats of
Bidbid and Sumail, which are part of the Dakhaliya Governorate, and Ibra and Al
Qabil which are part of the Sharqiya Governorates, in the south the Wilayat of
Mahut, which is part of the Wusta Governorate, in the east the Wilayats of Badiya
and Ja'alaan Bani Bu Hasan and Ja'alan Bani Bu 'Ali, and in the west the
Wilayats of lzki and Adam, which are part of the Dhakaliya Governorate. There are
about 90 villages . Its history goes back thousands
of years, according to what archaeologists have discovered in Samad Al Shaan.
Some of its archeological features are: the
castle of Al Jawabir in the town of Al Rawdha, the two forts Kabeeb and
Khazam in Samad Al Shaan, the fort of Al 'Aqir, the castle of Al Busa'idi in
the town of Al Akhdar, and Burj Warid and the houses of Mutowa where the
Wilayat meets the Wilayat of Ibra. The most outstanding mosques of the
Wilayat are Al Sawar in Al Mudaibi, and the Al Jam'aa Mosque in Samad Al
There are a number of tourist attractions, natural springs, falaj, caves and
modern places of amusement. The most important spring is 'Ain Al Harid,
which is famous for curing various contagious diseases. The two most
important falaj are Al Farsakhi and Bumanin.
There are caves throughout the mountains of Al Rawdha
and Jabal Madar. One of the modern amusement spots is in the Al Fasha'iya
area in Wadi 'Andaam, and others in the towns of Al Sahili, Wadi Daqiq and
Wilayat dima and AlTaaiyin
In the north it
neighbours the Wilayat of Quriyat, which is part of the Governorate of
Muscat, in the south the Wilayat of Ibra, in the east the Wilayats of Al
Qabil and Badiya and in the west the Wilayats of Al Mudaibi and Bidbid,
which is part of the Dakhaliya. It contains about 51
villages. The story-tellers say the people of the area once reared Arab
horses and exported them to markets in India, by sea. They also traded them
internally to other parts of the Sultanate and other areas ......thus the
The name Wadi Taaiyin goes back to the time of the collapse of the Ma'rab
Dam in the Yemen, when the Arab tribes fled to various places. The Ta'a
tribe, part of the Al Qahtaaina tribe descended through Wadi Sma'il then
came out to Wadi Al Taaiyin, where they settled. Some of the Al 'Udnaaniya
trib also reached the wadi which is named for them.
What about the name "Wadi Dima"
The story-tellers say that the Wadi witnessed many local wars, which shed
much blood (dima) and that the name of the Wadi goes back to thos events.
The Wilayat of Dima and Taaiyin has many archeological features - forts,
towers and old mosques. There are castles in Al Hamaam, Khabah I and Al
Husun. There are also 87 towers distributed among various areas of the
Wilayat, in addition to an old mosque, which has recently been renovated.
The springs, falaj and caves in the Wilayat of Dima and Taaiyin are
outstanding tourist attractions, 'Ain Falaj Al Mamar, 'Ain Falaj Al Sakhana,
'Ain Al Masafaa and 'ain Al Sakhana being the most important ones. Al 'Aqadaani,
Al Qaria, Al Luwyaili, Al 'Ain, Al Taht and Falaj Or are some of the most
important afalaj. The number of 'hot' afalaj is almost 200. There is one
cave, Ghar Abu Habaan. Wadi Daiqah is also another tourist attraction.
Wilayat Al kamil and Al Waafi
In the north it neighbours the Wilayat of Wadi
Bani Khalid, in the west the Wilayat of Badiya in the south the Wilayat of
Ja'alan Bani Bu Hasan and in the east the Wilayat of Sur.It contains about 40 villages and towns.
There are about 80 castles. The most outstanding mosques are the Al Jam'aa
Mosque, in the village of Al Waafi, and Al Shariya Mosque in Al Kamil, which
was built by the Ministry of Justice, Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. In addition
there is the mosque in the villages of Saiq and a number of other mosques in
various parts of the Wilayat.
The Wilayat of Al Kamil and Al Waafi has a number of natural areas with
running water which are important tourist attractions. Among them are the
village of Saiq, Al Baatin, Mazra', Tahuh and Wadi Laa. Natural springs, and
among them 'Ain AlRasa, 'Ain Falaj Yastan, and 'Ain Falaj Simoud are also
considered tourist attractions. There are other springs that only flow when
there has been much rain.
Wilayat Ja 'alan Bani Bu'Ali
It is located in the south east part of the
Sultanate and is one of the biggest Wilayats. It
is a mix of three different geographical
environments. What are they ? The first is the
coastal area of the Wilayat, the second, the
desert area and the third, the agricultural area.
This mix of environments provides the inhabitants
with a variety of incomes. It contains about 137 villages.
The coast stretches more than 170 kilometres, from
Ras Al Hadd in the north to Ras Al Ruwais in the
south; and scattered throughout are inhabited
areas. The Wilayat also includes the desert, so
that it is made up of pasture, sand dunes and
Most of the people are Bedouin, but nowadays they
are nearly all settled in their areas. In addition, there is the urban environment where the
inhabitants practice agriculture and trade.
In the Wilayat Ja'lan Bani Bu 'Ali there are
castles, forts, towers and old mosques. One of the
most important castles is that of "Al Hamouda"
which was built at the beginning of the 11th
There are also some ruined houses
which have been taken over by the Organization of
Castles and Forts. One of the principal forts of
the Wilayat is located in the Badi'ya area, and
bears the same name."Husn Al Badi'ya". It was
built about 250 years ago. Some other forts are:
Haasad, Al Lawiya, Jaabiya, Jaabiya 'Ayun, Al
Qatitra, Jaabiya Balidah, and two other forts, one
in the Shariy'a area and another in Kaabid. There
are also 13 towers in various areas.
The Al Jam'aa Mosque was built in the 11th century
A.H., it is unique in form and design and it is
made up of 52 cupolas in a wonderful feat of
engineering, in that its roof is also covered with
cupolas. These allow light and air into the
mosque. His Majesty Sultan Qaboos had it restored
at his own expense. The Wilayat of Ja'alan Bani Bu
'Ali has a moderate climate throughout most of the
year, because of the winds that blow on to its
shores from the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean,
carrying clouds, drizzle and rain. One of the most
important of these winds is called "Riyah Al Kawus",
which is particularly characteristic of the Al
Ashkara area. This climate induces many Omanis and
people from neighbouring Gulf states to visit the
area during the summer months, and is considered a
tourist attraction for the Wilayat. It is not the
only attraction, however ! There are wadis with
very luxuriant tree growth, the most important of
which are: Wadi Saal, Wadi Al Rawdha, Wadi Abu
Fashigha, Wadi Al Labida,and Wadi Jarif.
There are a number of afalaj: Abu Al Hees, Al
Dhahir, Al Seih, Hamad, Ziyad, Al Jidar, Al Faleej,
Al Rahyaan, Al Jadid, Ghadiraan, Zawid and Bahbouh.
There are also about 52 springs used for
irrigating the fields, which have a special system
for distributing the water, similar to that of the
Wilayat Ja 'alan Bani Bu Hussan
To the east is the Wilayat of Sur, to the west the
Rimal Aal Wahiba and the Wilayat of Al Mudaibi, to
the north the Wilayat of Al Kamil and Al Waafi and
to the south the Wilayat of Ja'alan Bani Bu 'Ali.
It also stretches south to the coast of the
Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. There are about
160 villages .The Wilayat
chose two crossed spears as its emblem which
indicates the bravery and courage of its citizens.
There is a collection of archaeological sites in
the Wilayat. There are 15 castles, the most
important being: the castle of Awlaad Murshid in
the Al Manjarad area and the castle of Faleej. Al
Mahiyul is considered the best fort in the
Wilayat, which also has 13 other forts. This shows
that, previously, it was a centre of local
government. The most important of the 60 towers
are: Al Safara, Al
Mursid, and Burj Al Saqata. The
Wilayat also has 40 ancient mosques.
Springs, falaj and caves make up the tourist
attractions of this Wilayat. There are about 15
springs, the most important being : Jabal Qahwan,
Al Khatam, Al Balida, Dima, Al 'Aqba and 'Ain Um
Al Baqr. The most important falaj are: Al Manjarad,
Al Buirad, Al Mahiyul, Al 'Aquiriya, Al Sharqi, Al
'Ais, Hilal and Falaj Al Mashaaikh. There are a
number of caves in Jabal Qahwan, which the
inhabitants used to live in, to protect themselves
and their animals from the fierce winds and rain. The most important of these caves are : Mataab, Al
Halifa, Wadi Al Marish, Matira and Wadi AI 'Atan..
Wilayat Wadi Bani Khalid:
In the west it
neighbours the Wilayats of Badiya and Al Qabil, in the east the Wilayat of
Sur, in the south the Wilayat of Al Kamil and Al Waafi, and in the north the
Wilayat Dima and Al Taaiyin. It contains about 30 villages. It is
famous for a number of archaeological sites. There are some forts, the most
important being: Hasan AI Muwalik in the village of Al 'Awina, which dates
back to the 4 th century A.H., the biggest fort in the Wilayat and in the
past was the base of the Wali and the Judge, the fort of Al 'Adafin in the
village of Qaswah, and the fort of Al Raziqiyeen in the village of Al Husun.
All in addition to other forts of which only ruins remain. There are also 9
The Wilayat has many tourist features. The main one is the cave of Maqal,
where water falls from holes, then bursts out with a gurgling sound into a
pool. It disappears again and finally collects into lakes which the people
distribute into three falaj. The Wilayat chose this cave as its emblem.
Other tourist attractions are the springs, of which the most important are:
'Ain Duwah, Al Lathab, Al Kabira', Al Haajir, Al Kanara, Al Makhdah, Al
Hawiya, Al Jabiyat Al khamra, Al Montajir, Al Halka, Al Ithnain and "Ain
Ghalaala. In addition there are 56 falaj, the most important being: Al Hili,
Al Fardhah, Abu Ba'rah, Al Saaruj, Al Garbi, Falaj Abu Khulaan and Al Kabeer.
This is an island located in the south east of
the Sultanate, administratively it is part of the Sharqiya. Around it are a
number of other islands the most important of which are Marsis, Sha'anzi and
Kalbaan. In the Wilayat of Masira are a number of villages: Dafiyaan, Al
Samar, Duwah Mashgaf, Marsis, Sur Masira, Haqal, 'Amaq, Maaghah, Raasa Sha'ah,
Al 'Aija, and Wadi Al Maqar.
Masira which is located in the Arabian Sea was a rest station for ships
anchored off its shores, to get sweet water. Alexander the Great made it his
base and called it Serepsis. Its beaches are a tourist attraction by
themselves and in addition there are a number of springs on the island. The
most important are: Al Qatara, Wadi Bilad and others near Jabal Al Hulm in
the south of the Wilayat.
The island has no falaj. A number of ancient forts are found on the island,
the 2 most important being Marsis and Dafiyat.
Among the traditional occupations in the Wilayat of Sur
are: fishing, textiles, black-smithery, gold smithery, weaving, carpentry
and sweet-making. The principal traditional industries in the Wilayat of
Sur, is the building of sailing ships of all types and sizes. The best know
of theses ships is the "Ghanja" from which the Wilayat of Sur takes its
In addition, traditional old Omani doors, with their well-known emplishments,
and wooden windows are made, together with the curved "Sur Khanjas. Women 's
jewelry -old and new. Textiles are also produced, the most important are "Al
Azar", "Al Saba'ya", "Al Shawadhir", "Al Masr", and "Al Hasar Al 'Umaniya" .
The traditional occupations,
industries and songs of the Wilayat are various. The most important are:
weaving, and especially weaving traditional Omani clothes, spinning of goats
hair, making khanjars and women's jewellery, making artifacts from palm tree
leaves and ropes, and leather tanning etc. The industries are: drying dates
and unripe dates, drying lemons, weaving from palm leaves, making
traditional leather goods, and gold and silver working.
is the main occupation for most people in the Wilayat. The most important of
its crops are fruit and vegetables and animal fodder, They also cultivate
grazing and animal husbandry The traditional industries are : gold and
silver working - jewellery, Khanjars and swords, and special tools such as
the "Makharif" which is used to collect dates from date palms and also the "Dharuf
used to storing dates, leather tanning for Khanjar belts, sword scabbards
and weaving with leaves, mainly ropes.
Wilayat al Qabil
The people of the Wilayat are famous for a number
of occupations, industries and traditional songs. Agriculture is their main
occupation. The most important products are : dates,various kinds of
seasonal crops, and citrus fruit. The people also spin and weave, make
specialized handicrafts from the leaves of palm trees, raise livestock -
especially camels and horses - work as blacksmiths and manufacture
embellishments for camels and horses. The people of the Wilayat of Al Qabil
also follow traditional industries such as silver working to make Khanjars
and jewellery, sweet-making, making pottery in the town of Al Mongara'd, in
Wadi Naam, and also in mining Omani gypsum.
Wilayat al Mudaibi
There are various
occupations, industries and traditional songs in the Wilayat. Agriculture is
the main occupation, famous products being: palm trees, lemons, clover and
vegetables, grazing and raising camels are also practiced. Spinning and
weaving textiles, weaving palm leaves, bee keeping, making agricultural
tools, especially ploughs and spades, making Omani sweets and mats
Wilayat dima and AlTaaiyin
The Wilayat of Dima and Al Taaiyin is famous for
agriculture and animal husbandry. Much of the agricultural area has good
grazing so animal resources have grown. It is the main income for the
citizens of the Wilayat. In addition there are various agricultural
products, such as several kinds of dates, which ripen early (about a month
before any other Wilayats in the Sultanate) The early marketing of these
dates is extremely lucrative for the farm owners. Khanjar making, weaving,
jewellery making and blacksmithery are some of the important traditional
Wilayat Al kamil and Al Waafi
A number of
occupations, industries and traditional songs are practised here. The
occupations are: spinning, weaving clothes, making horse saddles and
embellishments for camels, belts, making khanjars and swords, animal
husbandry and grazing. The industries are: making wooden doors, windows,
minbars, wardrobes and beds. Aside from these pottery is made. There are
woven goods such as horse and camel saddles, men's and women's clothes, and
handkerchiefs. Bricks are also made.
Wilayat Ja 'alan Bani Bu'Ali
The Wilayat is famous
for a number of occupations, industries and traditional songs. Fishing is
the main income for the people who live in the coastal area, with. grazing
and animal husbandry for the people of the desert, and agriculture and trade
for the people of the urban areas of the Wilayat. Ship building is one of
the most important traditional industries, especially in Al Ashkhara,
together with the making of gold and silver jewellery.
Wilayat Ja 'alan Bani Bu Hussan
There are many
traditional occupations in the Wilayat, but most of the population are
involved with agriculture, which is the main source of income. The soil is
very fertile and is suitable for many crops.For irrigation they depend on
falaj and wells. The most important agricultural products are: various types
of dates, vegetables, and fruit, especially mango. The most important types
of date are "Al Khalaas", "Al Madluki" and "Abu Naaranja". The people also
graze goats and camels, as the area has a particularly suitable type of
In the coastal part of the Wilayat of Ja'alan Bani Bu
Hasan, from Bandar Al Saklaa to Bandar Al Jueera, most of the people are
fishermen, and this is the main income of the area. Some inhabitants are
blacksmiths, making spears and swords and agricultural tools. They also
polish and maintain bronze pots, eliminating the toxic sediment from cooking
pots, and making them shiny and clean again. In the desert people spin and
weave goats hair and so fullfill their needs for woollen items.
The "Shamaara" makes leather handicrafts such as scabbards for swords, belts
and holsters for rifles. Gold and silver working is also practised, making
jewellery and khanjars. Many people in the Wilayat also make woven or
earthenware pots (Fakhaar), to such an extent that the wadis in the west of
the Wilayat are known as "Khaam Al Fakhaar". There are also some modern
industries in the Wilayat which have developed during the Renaissance of His
Majesty Sultan Qaboos. The most important of these are dairy products, ice
and brick manufacture.
Wilayat Wadi Bani Khalid
The Wilayat has
numerous occupations, industries . The occupations are
weaving with leaves, animal husbandry and grazing, growing palm trees,
citrus fruit, mangos and bananas, and producing local folk remedies for
mending broken bones and cauterization. The
industries are gold and silver working, weaving and blacksmithery.
Weaving is one of the
most important traditional occupations. Masira was famous for building types
of ships which are rarely found now. However the island is still famous for
making fishing nets.
Al Buraimi Gov
Al Dakhiliyah Gov
Al Batinah N & S
Al Sharqiyah N & S
Al Dhahirah Gov
Al Wusta Gov