is a semi desert plain which slopes from the southern fool of Al Hajr
AI Gharbi Mountains towards the Empty Quarter. It is separated from
A’Dakhliyah Governorate by AI Kur Mountain to the East; it joins the Empty
Quarter from the West and Al Wusta Governorate from the south. A’Dhahirah Governorate consists of three wilayats: Ibri,Yanqul and
Dhank. Ibri town is one of the regional centers located some 279
kilometers one of from the capital Muscat. Wilayat Ibri is distinguished
for its unique location which joins the Sultanate with other areas in the
Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, it was a crossing for the commercial
convoys since long. It has a lot of historical places such as forts,
fortresses among which are Al Salayf Fort, Ayn Al Hadith and Ayn Al Janah.
Ibri's northern neighbours are the
wilayats of Saham and Rustaq in the Batinah North Governorate, while the wilayats of
Yanqul, Dhank and Buraimi lie to the north-west. To the south are the Wilayats
of Adam, in the Dakhiliyah Governorate, and Haima, in the Wusta Governorate. Saudi Arabia,
the Empty Quarter and the United Arab Emirates lie to the west.
In the past trading caravans used to pass through
it, as did several major land routes linking the Sultanate with the other Gulf
States. It may have acquired its name - Ibri - from the Arabic root "a-b-r",
which conveys the connotation of "crossing" or "traversing".
Ibri today is known for its oil and gas fields -
which provide one of the country's main sources of income. The Wilayat of Ibri
is also well-known for its ancient sites, including forts and towers as well as
the ruinsa Bat - the second Omani site to be listed by UNESCO as a World
Heritage Site after Bahla Fort in the Dakhiliyah Governorate.
Bat lies in the eastern part of the Wilayat of IV
Bat's historical importance lies in its location at the crossroads of the old
trade routes, along which caravan passed laden with merchandise destined for
other regions. It was here that a Danish archaeological tear - in co-operation
with he Ministry of National Heritage and Culture's Department of Antiquities –
carried out a survey in 1976 and discovered a number of tomb about two
kilometres to the north of the present-0 village. The southern area of the site
contains tombso the "beehve" type, which is well-known in the region.
Another area was found to contain a hundred stone
tombs, which showed signs of being more advanced than the 'beehive tombs', but
less so than the Umm Al Nar tombs. The 'beehive tombs' contain between two and
five graves, while the later type - twenty of which were found - are communal
graves. In both types of tombs pieces of red pottery were found similar to the
"Jumdat Nasr" pottery in Iraq. Other discoveries included high-grade red pottery
decorated with black lines and items that appear to be 'framed' and designed to
be hung. Objects of this type were common in the settlements and tombs of the
Umm Al Nar civilization in the region and neighboring areas.
Another discovery in Bat was a round structure
surrounded by a wall of square-cut rocks. A "mint" was found on the
south-eastern side of its entrance. The archaeologists also discovered a well
that divided the building into two halves. Each half contained a row of
rectangular rooms without entrances or connecting passages or connections with
the outer wall. This suggested that the rooms were not designed for living
accommodation. After exhaustive archaeological study it was decided that these
structures - the six rooms - performed the function of watch-towers for the
Inside the fort there is a large Friday Mosque.
The fort also has two wells, a stable and two towers. One of these overlooks the
old souk, which lies to the north, while the other has a view to the south. Ibri
Fort has a square keep and a massive outer wall.
Jabal Al Shahshah Fort was the real town centre
inancient times. The traces of a mud-brick well have been discovered beneath its
Al Aswad Fort's history dates from the year 972
of the Hegirah. It is a tall, formidable building with four towers - Burj Al
Rih, Burg Al Muraqabah, al Sabah and Burg Sulaiman.
One of the most important towers in the Wilayat is Burj al Shari'ah - a sentry
The citadel of al Sulaif was built by Imam Sultan bin Saif Al Yarubi. It
consists of a number of buildings, including houses and a mosque, and has an
outer wall with several high towers. It also has a well and a falaj flows
Other tourist attractions in the Wilayat of Ibri
include a number of springs and falajes. In the village of Muqniyat lies al
Haidith spring and, surrounded by date and mango groves, al Jinah spring.
Falajes include Falaj al Mafjoor in Ibri, as well as the falajes of al Mab'ooth,
al Iraqi, al Ainayn, al Dareez and al Qurwan.
Another tourist landmark is the village of Dhamm
in Wadi al Ain, which is a popular picnic site with Omanis and residents,
particularly in rainy weather, when the rains cascade down in waterfalls from
Jabal Al Kawr and al Jabal al Akhdar. Al Dareez Fort - a major defensive fort -
has two towers and several gates.
Other places of interest including Al Ghabbi Fob
another ancient building with several towers - al Ainay Fort, al Sulaimi Fort
and Bait al Sarooj. Bait al Sarooj is an old house, not a fort. The Wilayat of
Ibri has numerous traditional arts, crafts and occupations. The main occupations
are pasturing, stock-rearing, weaving and agriculture. The area's major crops
include fruit (particularly dates and citrus fruits), wheat, vegetables and
When you enter the
Wilayat of Yanqul the first thing you will see is the mountain of Jabal al
Hawra - which the wilayat has adopted as its emblem - standing guard over
Yanqul like a sentry.
It is so named because its color is like the color of the houris, who are
famed for their beautiful pink complexions.
It borders on the Wilayat of Ibri to the south and east, the Wilayat of Dank
to the west and the Wilayat of Sohar to the north. It has around 70
Tourist attractions in
the Wilayat of Yanqul include the enchanting Wadi al Rakiy with its trees
and fine views. The village of Sudairain is renowned for its abundant water
and beautiful scenery, while al Waqbah village is known for its many wadis
and cool temperatures. The village of Baiha is also famous for its fantastic
scenery. Its wadi, which flows from the mountains, is its bestknown feature.
Of the wilayat's numerous of aflaj, the best known are Falaj al 'Ulu, Falaj al
Muhaidith and Falaj al Khabourah.
Dhank lies at the centre of the
Dhahirah Governorate. Its neighbours are the Wilayats of Buraimi to the north and
west, Ibri to the south and west, and Yanqul to the east.
The wilayat has a distinguished history. It has
16.622 inhabitants and 48 villages. The imams of earlier times took an interest
in Dhank, as can be seen today in Falaj al Bazili in the west of the Wilayat and
the "Imam's Fort" in its central area. Falaj al Bazili was constructed by Imam
Saif bin Sultan AI Yarubi, who cultivated extensive areas around it, while the
"Imam's Fort" was renovated by Imam Azzan bin Qais. Ibn al Rumtha built Al Oud
Fort in Safalat al Wahshi. Other forts in the Wilayat include al Shiraya', al
Subaikha, al Marqu', al 'Aqr, Doot, al Jafrah, Balat, al Khilli and al Fath.
There are also six towers: al Saghar, al Taff, al Ghafah, al Khilli, Abu Kariyah
and al Qala'ah.
Wadi Dhank is one of the Wilayat's main tourist sites. Other popular spots are
Wadi al Fath and Wadi Qumaira.
The Wilayat is well endowed with falajes
underground water resources and springs. Its falajes include al Sadd, al Sima,
al Muhaidith, al Taff, Salalah, Qumaira, al Rahbah, Balat, al Fath, al Janbi, al
Khilli and Khamat. Its two springs are al Musaifiya and Bani Saa'idah.
Traditional handicrafts include
cloaks, decorated saddle-bags, palm-weave items, leather work, pottery,
wicker-work, traditional building materials and Omani halwa.
Agriculture provides one of the main traditional means of livelihood and a wide
range of crops are produced including dates, wheat, sugar cane, citrus fruit and
other varieties of fruit. Traditional handicrafts include weaving, palm
wickerwork and gold and silver ornaments. There are many sugar cane juice stalls
in the wilayat.
The Wilayat's traditional
occupations include carpentry, blacksmithing, farming and stock-rearing. The
main crops are fruit, mainly dates, as well as indigo, vegetables, and animal
Local crafts include wickerwork, palm-weave productions, traditional Omani
building materials and indigo.
Al Buraimi Gov
Al Dakhiliyah Gov
Al Batinah N & S
Al Sharqiyah N & S
Al Dhahirah Gov
Al Wusta Gov